Skip to main content
Best News Website or Mobile Service
WAN-IFRA Digital Media Awards Worldwide
Best News Website or Mobile Service
Digital Media Awards Worldwide
Hamburger Menu



commentary Commentary

Commentary: Weaker growth prospects herald bad news for businesses and financial markets

What’s the outlook for the global economy this year? Downside risks and the lack of a cushion throw questions on optimistic projections, say Stephen S Roach.

Commentary: Weaker growth prospects herald bad news for businesses and financial markets

Workers walk in the City of London, Britain on Sep 21, 2018. (File photo: REUTERS/Peter Nicholls)

NEW HAVEN, Connecticut: Only now are we becoming aware of the danger the global economy narrowly avoided in 2019.

According to the International Monetary Fund’s preliminary, world GDP grew by just 2.9 per cent last year – the weakest performance since the outright contraction in the depths of the global financial crisis in 2009 and far short of the 3.8 per cent pace of post-crisis recovery over the 2010 to 2018 period.

On the surface, 2.9 per cent global growth doesn’t appear too shabby. But 40 years of perspective says otherwise. Since 1980, trend world GDP growth has averaged 3.5 per cent.

For any economy, including the world as a whole, the key to assessing growth implications can be found in deviations from the trend – a proxy for the so-called output gap. 

Last year’s shortfall from trend (0.6 percentage points) brought growth uncomfortably close to the widely accepted global recession threshold of approximately 2.5 per cent.


Unlike individual economies, which normally contract in an outright recession, that is rarely the case for the world as a whole.

We know from the IMF’s extensive coverage of the world economy, which consists of a broad cross-section of some 194 countries, that in a global recession about half of the world’s economies are typically contracting, while the other half are still expanding – albeit at a subdued pace.

The global recession of a decade ago was a notable exception: By early 2009, fully three-quarters of the world’s economies were actually shrinking.

That tipped the scales to a rare outright contraction in world GDP, the first such downturn in the overall global economy since the 1930s.

Many countries fell short of their growth potential in the 2010s. A faster-than-expected slowdown in China is a risk for growth in developing East Asia and Pacific, the World Bank said in a new report. (AFP/Wang Zhao)


For global business-cycle analysts, this 2.5 to 3.5 per cent growth band is considered the danger zone.

When world output growth slips to the lower half of that range – as it did in 2019 – the risks of global recession need to be taken seriously.

As is typically the case for official, or institutional, forecasts, the IMF is projecting a modest acceleration of annual world GDP growth in 2020 and 2021, to 3.3 per cent and 3.4 per cent, respectively.

READ: Commentary: The Singapore economy in 2020 - stabilisation or more uncertainties on the horizon?

READ: Commentary: Shocks lined a rather demanding year for Singapore and the global economy

But as the physicist Niels Bohr once said, “Prediction is very difficult, especially if it is about the future.”

Just ask the IMF, which has revised down six consecutive iterations of its global forecast. Obviously, there is no guarantee that its latest optimistic projection will be realized.


Downside risks are especially worrisome, because a 2.9 per cent growth outcome for the world economy underscores the lack of a comfortable cushion in the event of a shock.

As I noted recently, predicting shocks is a fool’s game. Yet the tough measures that China is now taking to contain the lethal Wuhan coronavirus only serve to remind us that shocks are far more frequent than we care to think.

Misinformation about the virus has spread widely since its outbreak in China. (Photo: AFP/Nicolas Asfouri) Misinformation about the mystery virus has spread widely since its outbreak in China AFP/NICOLAS ASFOURI

READ: Commentary: China in a Wuhan coronavirus lockdown – life is normal but not really

A few weeks ago, it was the possibility of a hot war between the United States and Iran. And before that, there was the increasingly contentious US-China trade war.

The point is that below-trend global growth, especially when it moves into the lower half of the 2.5 to 3.5 per cent range, is nearing its stall speed.

That leaves the world much more susceptible to recession than it would otherwise be in a more vigorous environment of above-trend global growth.


The same message comes through loud and clear in gauging the risks to the global trade cycle – long the major engine of global growth in an increasingly integrated, supply-chain-linked world economy.

The IMF’s latest assessment put global trade growth at just 1 per cent in 2019 – its seventh consecutive downward revision. Indeed, last year was the weakest trade performance since the historic 10.4 per cent plunge in 2009, which was the worst contraction since the early 1930s.

Compared to the 5 per cent average over the 2010 to 2018 period, the slowdown of world trade growth to just 1 per cent in 2019 is all the more alarming.

In fact, it was the fourth-weakest year since 1980, and the three worse years – 1982, 2001, and 2009 – were all associated with global recessions.

READ: Commentary: The brewing discontent with trade and one step to restoring faith in globalisation

READ: Commentary: The end of the decade – the world is in more debt and it isn’t going away

Global trade growth has never recovered to its pre-crisis pace, a shortfall that has been the subject of intense debate in recent years.

Initially thought to be a consequence of unusual weakness in business capital spending, there can be no ignoring the impact of protectionism following the start of the US-China trade conflict.


Now that the two sides have agreed to a truce in the form of a “phase one” trade deal, there is hope that the trade prognosis will improve. Reflecting that hope, the IMF’s January update calls for a modest rebound to 3.3 per cent average growth in world trade over the 2020 to 2021 period.

But with the average US tariff rate on Chinese imports likely to remain at about 19 per cent after the accord is signed – more than six times the pre-trade-war rate of 3 per cent – and with worrisome signs of escalating US-Europe trade tensions, this forecast, like those of the past several years, may turn out be wishful thinking.

Employees work at the production line of aluminium rolls at a factory in Zouping, Shandong province, China, China has seen a gradual shift of production capacity to ASEAN, caused by structural factors and accelerated by its trade war with the US. Nov 23, 2019. (File photo: Reuters)

All this bears critically on the precarious state of the global business cycle. Historically, the rapid expansion of cross-border trade has been an important part of the global growth cushion that shields the world economy from all-too-frequent shocks.

From 1990 to 2008, annual growth in world trade was fully 82 per cent faster than world GDP growth.

Now, however, reflecting the unusually sharp post-crisis slowdown in global trade growth, this cushion has shrunk dramatically, to just 13 per cent over the 2010 to 2019 period.

With the world economy operating dangerously close to stall speed, the confluence of ever-present shocks and a sharply diminished trade cushion raises serious questions about financial markets’ increasingly optimistic view of global economic prospects.

Stephen S Roach, a faculty member at Yale University and former Chairman of Morgan Stanley Asia, is the author of Unbalanced: The Codependency of America and China.



Also worth reading