Commentary: Rise in US COVID-19 cases show the pandemic is still surging

Commentary: Rise in US COVID-19 cases show the pandemic is still surging

The evidence is clear that the US’ record-high numbers reflect a true increase in COVID-19 infections, says an observer.

Testing site for returning students and staff at NYU campus in New York
People wait in line at a testing site for the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) set up for returning students, faculty and staff on the main New York University (NYU) campus in Manhattan, New York City, New York, U.S., August 18, 2020. REUTERS/Mike Segar

BALTIMORE, Maryland: COVID-19 cases are surging upward around the US, reaching 100,000 daily cases for the first time on Nov 4 and 150,000 only eight days later.

Some believe this increase in reported is a result of increases in testing, as more than 1.5 million tests are performed every day in the US.

But the evidence is clear that these high numbers reflect a true increase in the number of COVID-19 infections.

Hospitalisations, deaths and test-positivity rates are going up. Taken together, this means that serious COVID-19 illness is on the rise and cases are being undercounted.

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con us surge
Seven-day rolling average of the number of people confirmed to have COVID-19, compared with the number of people who die and recover, per day (not including today). (Graphic: The Conversation US; Source: John Hopkins CSSE)

SPIKES IN HOSPITALISATION AND DEATH RATES

Rather than being an artefact of changes in testing policy, the rise in cases reflects ongoing transmission and serious illness.

Even as COVID-19 treatments have improved and death rates have fallen, record-breaking levels of hospitalisations are already overwhelming ICUs in many parts of the country.

Hospitalisations and deaths will continue to climb even if the surge in new cases abates because the majority of cases are diagnosed before serious illness develops. Today’s new infections will add to the death toll for weeks to come.

These hospitalisations and deaths represent confirmed COVID-19 infections. A COVID-19 diagnosis for hospitalised cases must be justified based on symptoms and test results.

COVID-19 is simply the only plausible explanation for ongoing high hospitalisation and death rates.

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HIGH, RISING TEST-POSITIVITY

High and rising test-positivity rates provide more evidence that COVID-19 is spreading uncontrollably around the country.

Test-positivity can be calculated in two ways: As the percentage of all COVID-19 tests that come back positive, or, the percentage of people tested for active infection that return a positive result.

For example, Iowa’s test-positivity rate of 37.2 per cent between Oct 26 and Nov 9 implies that for every 100 people tested for COVID-19, 37 are positive.

Test-positivity tells public health officials whether a testing program is casting a wide enough net to catch the majority of COVID-19 cases.

A high test-positivity rate indicates that the people getting tested are mostly those who have symptoms or think they’ve been exposed to someone with COVID-19.

A woman prepares to take a test for the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Staten Island, New York
A woman prepares to take a test for the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Staten Island, New York, U.S., November 10, 2020. REUTERS/Brendan McDermid

But people can be infected or contagious even if they aren’t showing symptoms. A low test-positivity rate means that access to testing is wide enough to reach large numbers of people who may not know they have the coronavirus.

This greatly increases the chances of diagnosing people without symptoms or known exposure who may nonetheless be infected.

The World Health Organization recommends a goal of 5 per cent test-positivity or less, but test-positivity rates in many parts of the US are well above that.

As of Nov 17, 44 states had test-positivity rates above 5 per cent, meaning their testing programs were not casting a broad enough net and were likely missing many undiagnosed cases.

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WORST YET TO COME

The data on hospitalisations, deaths and test-positivity clearly show that the worst of the surge is yet to come. High test-positivity rates mean the current confirmed case numbers are undercounting total cases.

A test-positivity rate above 25 per cent, as is the case in several states, implies there may be more than five times as many cases in the population as have been diagnosed.

Many of these undetected cases may be contagious even though they have no symptoms, which further contributes to the spread of the virus.

Considering the lag between new cases and hospitalisation or death, the current surge does not bode well for the coming winter.

EMT’s clean their materials at Memorial West in Pembroke Pines
FILE PHOTO: EMT’s cleanse their materials outside Memorial West Hospital where coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients are treated, in Pembroke Pines, Florida, U.S. July 13, 2020. REUTERS/Maria Alejandra Cardona

The record-breaking surge in COVID-19 cases and hospitalisations around the US represents a true increase in infections and serious illness rather than an increase in testing.

In fact, high test-positivity rates show that cases are undercounted because of limited access to testing. Hospitalisations and deaths will continue to rise in the weeks ahead.

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Overstretched testing programs remain a weak link in the US pandemic response. Diagnosing cases – and catching them as early as possible – will help cut off transmission chains of the deadly virus.

When people learn they’re infected, they’re more likely to take necessary precautions to avoid exposing family, friends and others to the virus.

Contrary to what some ill-informed people may be saying, the US should be expanding access to testing to curb the spread of COVID-19. More testing would actually be a crucial step toward finally getting the virus under control.

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Zoe McLaren is Associate Professor of Public Policy at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County. This commentary first appeared on The Conversation.

Source: CNA/el

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