Commentary: A mismanaged US-China relationship could force countries to pick a side

Commentary: A mismanaged US-China relationship could force countries to pick a side

What started as a trade war now threatens to escalate into a permanent state of mutual animosity, says New York University’s Nouriel Roubini.

US President Donald Trump shakes hand with China's President Xi Jinping after 2017 talks in
US President Donald Trump shakes hand with China's President Xi Jinping after 2017 talks in Beijing. (Photo: AFP/Fred DUFOUR)

NEW YORK: A few years ago, as part of a Western delegation to China, I met President Xi Jinping in Beijing’s Great Hall of the People. 

When addressing us, Xi argued that China’s rise would be peaceful, and that other countries – namely, the United States – need not worry about the “Thucydides Trap,” so named for the Greek historian who chronicled how Sparta’s fear of a rising Athens made war between the two inevitable.

In his 2017 book Destined for War: Can America and China Escape Thucydides’s Trap?, Harvard University’s Graham Allison examines 16 earlier rivalries between an emerging and an established power, and finds that 12 of them led to war. No doubt, Xi wanted us to focus on the remaining four.

EACH HAVE THEIR OWN ARGUMENT

Despite the mutual awareness of the Thucydides Trap – and the recognition that history is not deterministic – China and the US seem to be falling into it anyway. Though a hot war between the world’s two major powers still seems far-fetched, a cold war is becoming more likely.

Chinese President Xi Jinping attends at the Conference on Dialogue of Asian Civilizations in Beijing
Chinese President Xi Jinping attends the Conference on Dialogue of Asian Civilizations in Beijing, China May 15, 2019. (Photo: REUTERS/Thomas Peter)

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The US blames China for the current tensions. Since joining the World Trade Organisation in 2001, China has reaped the benefits of the global trading and investment system, while failing to meet its obligations and free riding on its rules.

According to the US, China has gained an unfair advantage through intellectual-property theft, forced technology transfers, subsidies for domestic firms, and other instruments of state capitalism.

For their part, the Chinese suspect that the US’s real goal is to prevent them from rising any further or projecting legitimate power and influence abroad.

READ: Xi Jinping is readying China for a long, brutal trade war, a commentary

In their view, it is only reasonable that the world’s second-largest economy (by GDP) would seek to expand its presence on the world stage. And leaders would argue that their regime has improved the material welfare of 1.4 billion Chinese far more than the West’s gridlocked political systems ever could.

POTENTIAL TO ESCALATE INTO MUTUAL ANIMOSITY

Regardless of which side has the stronger argument, the escalation of economic, trade, technological, and geopolitical tensions may have been inevitable. 

What started as a trade war now threatens to escalate into a permanent state of mutual animosity. This is reflected in the Trump administration’s National Security Strategy, which deems China a strategic “competitor” that should be contained on all fronts.

READ: All this China bashing is an outgrowth of an insecure US, a commentary

US President Donald Trump told reproters the US is "doing very well with China talks" and
US President Donald Trump told reproters the US is "doing very well with China talks" and is "getting what we have to get" (Photo: AFP/SAUL LOEB)

Accordingly, the US is sharply restricting Chinese foreign direct investment in sensitive sectors, and pursuing other actions to ensure Western dominance in strategic industries such as artificial intelligence and 5G.

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It is pressuring partners and allies not to participate in the Belt and Road Initiative, China’s massive programme to build infrastructure projects across the Eurasian landmass. And it is increasing US Navy patrols in the East and South China Seas, where China has grown more aggressive in asserting its dubious territorial claims.

SEVERE CONSEQUENCES

The global consequences of a Sino-American cold war would be even more severe than those of the Cold War between the US and the Soviet Union. Whereas the Soviet Union was a declining power with a failing economic model, China will soon become the world’s largest economy, and will continue to grow from there.

Moreover, the US and the Soviet Union traded very little with each other, whereas China is fully integrated in the global trading and investment system, and deeply intertwined with the US, in particular.

A full-scale cold war thus could trigger a new stage of de-globalisation, or at least a division of the global economy into two incompatible economic blocs.

In either scenario, trade in goods, services, capital, labour, technology, and data would be severely restricted, and the digital realm would become a “splinternet,” wherein Western and Chinese nodes would not connect to one another.

The logo of Huawei
The logo of Huawei, which is facing an effective ban in the United States, is seen at a retail store in Beijing. (Photo: AFP/FRED DUFOUR)

Now that the US has imposed sanctions on ZTE and Huawei, China will be scrambling to ensure that its tech giants can source essential inputs domestically, or at least from friendly trade partners that are not dependent on the US.

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FORCED TO PICK A SIDE

In this balkanised world, China and the US will both expect all other countries to pick a side, while most governments will try to thread the needle of maintaining good economic ties with both. After all, many US allies now do more business (in terms of trade and investment) with China than they do with America.

Yet in a future economy where China and the US separately control access to crucial technologies such as AI and 5G, the middle ground will most likely become uninhabitable. Everyone will have to choose, and the world may well enter a long process of de-globalisation.

Whatever happens, the Sino-American relationship will be the key geopolitical issue of this century. Some degree of rivalry is inevitable. But, ideally, both sides would manage it constructively, allowing for cooperation on some issues and healthy competition on others.

In effect, China and the US would create a new international order, based on the recognition that the (inevitably) rising new power should be granted a role in shaping global rules and institutions.

If the relationship is mismanaged – with the US trying to derail China’s development and contain its rise, and China aggressively projecting its power in Asia and around the world – a full-scale cold war will ensue, and a hot one (or a series of proxy wars) cannot be ruled out.

In the twenty-first century, the Thucydides Trap would swallow not just the US and China, but the entire world.

Nouriel Roubini is CEO of Roubini Macro Associates and Professor of Economics at the Stern School of Business, NYU.

Source: Project Syndicate/nr(sl)

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